By Douglas Walton
Fresh paintings in synthetic intelligence has more and more grew to become to argumentation asa wealthy interdisciplinary zone of study which may offer new tools similar toevidence and reasoning within the quarter of legislations. during this booklet, DouglasWalton providesan creation to easy suggestions, instruments, and strategies in argumentation theoryand synthetic intelligence as utilized to the research and assessment of witnesstestimony. He exhibits how witness testimony is through its nature inherently fallibleand occasionally topic to disastrous disasters. while, if used properly,such testimony supplies facts that it isn't simply helpful yet inherentlyreasonable for logically guided felony specialists to simply accept or reject a declare. Waltonshows tips to conquer the normal disdain for witness testimony as a typeof facts proven through logical positivists and the perspectives of trial skeptics who doubtthat trial ideas care for witness testimony in a fashion that yields a rational decisionmakingprocess. This booklet should be of curiosity to people who paintings within the parts ofanalytical philosophy, casual good judgment, man made intelligence, and legislation.
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The reason appears to be the longstanding distinction drawn between knowledge and belief in epistemology. This traditional distrust can be expressed in the form of an argument from a premise to a conclusion, as follows. The user of testimony does not have knowledge, or direct knowledge, of the facts alleged by the testifier. Since conclusions drawn from testimony are not knowledge, it follows that they must be merely matters of subjective belief. On this traditional view, then, since testimony is not knowledge, there is no place for it as a form of rational argument within logic.
Arguments are based on assumptions that might later have to be reconsidered. The purpose of a typical argument is not to compel the hearer to accept the conclusion put forward but to persuade him to accept it, assuming he either is committed to the premises or can be persuaded to accept them. Such arguments have four characteristics (p. 2). First, they are intrinsically defeasible. Second, the goal of the argument is to persuade. Third, arguments leave assumptions implicit. Fourth, more information can be added to arguments.
In an adversarial system, cross-examination is carried out by the critical probing and attempted rebuttals of a story by the opposed side. In Chapter 6 it is shown that the adversarial trial is a method of resolving a conflict of opinions by rational argumentation based on evidence. It is shown how factual evidence is collected in an information-seeking dialogue that is embedded in a critical discussion. It is shown how the trial framework meets the requirements for rational argumentation in a critical discussion.
Witness testimony evidence by Douglas Walton