By Thomas L. Neff
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Extra resources for The Social Costs of Solar Energy. A Study of Photovoltaic Energy Systems
A great deal of arsenic is imported despite the relatively large losses at domestic facilities; reduction of these emissions thus appears to depend more on regulatory than economic imperatives. S. only by the ASARCO plant in Tacoma, Wash. Flue dusts from a number of United States and foreign copper smelters, as well as copper ores with especially high arsenic content, are processed at the Tacoma facility. Until recently, arsenic emissions at this plant were at or above the highest levels found at copper smelters.
Cadmium: Population Exposures and Health Effects As with silicon, we modeled cadmium releases-and resulting population exposures—from coal, from the three stages in the production of cadmium sulfide cells, and from house fires involving cadmium sulfide arrays. At each production stage, concentrations of cadmium due to photovoltaics are two to three orders of magnitude higher than for coal under all weather conditions and at all distances from the plant. The number of people exposed to any given level of Cd is one to two orders of magnitude larger for photovoltaics than for coal.
Only by the ASARCO plant in Tacoma, Wash. Flue dusts from a number of United States and foreign copper smelters, as well as copper ores with especially high arsenic content, are processed at the Tacoma facility. Until recently, arsenic emissions at this plant were at or above the highest levels found at copper smelters. In the past few years, the Tacoma plant has been required to install new control devices for several phases of its operation. Success in controlling emissions is still uncertain; the very small particle size involved means that baghouses and electrostatic precipitators are less than fully efficient.
The Social Costs of Solar Energy. A Study of Photovoltaic Energy Systems by Thomas L. Neff