By Winfried Hoffmann
The area is on the crossroads of both speedy altering the power photograph in the direction of enforcing effective renewable power assets or suspending this approach by way of one other generation. in response to the author's greater than 30 years business event, this e-book provides a collection of assumptions by means of extrapolating identified expertise advancements and indicates that a hundred% insurance through renewable know-how of the worldwide power wishes is far extra possible than formerly argued.
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Extra resources for The Economic Competitiveness of Renewable Energy: Pathways to 100% Global Coverage
1 Primary, secondary and end user energy globally around 2010. 2 Split of the primary energy (~2010 in PWh) into the various energy carriers. energy form electricity. The losses shown are mainly associated with converting primary energy to electricity in power stations. Although it is today possible to convert fossil fuel to electricity in a modern power station with up to ~60% efficiency, it is a matter of fact that globally the average conversion is only about one third, with two thirds of primary energy content lost as heat in the cooling towers.
The unsolved storage issue of spent fuel for nuclear reactors is of additional concern. After all, it is also the increasing cost figures which do not even contain insurance numbers as no insurance company worldwide is willing to take on the associated risk. Of course, current industries which have established themselves well in the old environment do not like such developments and are trying to find ways to at least prolong the business as usual scenario. Together with their closely attached supporters from politics and industry they are instead trying to push for solutions which they themselves could most easily realize: CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) for fossil use and new nuclear reactor types like Fast Breeder and Fusion.
The losses shown are mainly associated with converting primary energy to electricity in power stations. Although it is today possible to convert fossil fuel to electricity in a modern power station with up to ~60% efficiency, it is a matter of fact that globally the average conversion is only about one third, with two thirds of primary energy content lost as heat in the cooling towers. In the same year, the approximately 20 PWh of global electricity needs and the associated losses of ~30 PWh were obviously eating more than one third of the total primary energy (here I assumed 15 PWh from fossil and nuclear which contribute to the named losses and the other 5 PWh from hydro and other renewables with no losses).
The Economic Competitiveness of Renewable Energy: Pathways to 100% Global Coverage by Winfried Hoffmann