By Paul V. Kroskrity, Margaret C. Field
Ideals and emotions approximately language fluctuate dramatically inside of and throughout NativeAmerican cultural teams and are an stated a part of the tactics oflanguage shift and language loss of life. This quantity samples the language ideologiesof a variety of local American communities—from the Canadian Yukon toGuatemala—to express their function in sociocultural transformation.These experiences take in such lively matters as “insiderness” in Cherokee languageideologies, contradictions of space-time for the Northern Arapaho, languagesocialization and Paiute id, and orthography offerings and language renewalamong the Kiowa. The authors—including individuals of indigenous speech communitieswho perform language renewal efforts—discuss not just NativeAmericans’ wide awake language ideologies but in addition the often-revealing relationshipbetween those ideals and different extra implicit realizations of language useas embedded in neighborhood practice.The articles speak about the effect of latest language matters similar togrammar, language use, the relation among language and social id, andemergent language ideologies themselves in local American speech communities.And even if they painting visible edition in attitudes towards languageacross groups, additionally they demonstrate commonalities—notably the emergentideological strategy of iconization among a language and numerous national,ethnic, and tribal identities.As fewer local americans proceed to talk their very own language, thistimely quantity presents worthwhile grounded stories of language ideologies inaction—those indigenous to local groups in addition to these imposed byoutside associations or language researchers. It considers the emergent interactionof indigenous and imported ideologies and the ensuing impression on languagebeliefs, practices, and struggles in today’s Indian state because it demonstratesthe useful implications of spotting a multiplicity of indigenous languageideologies and their effect on history language upkeep and renewal.
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Extra resources for Native American Language Ideologies: Beliefs, Practices, and Struggles in Indian Country
Many ‘‘(I don’t know) how many questions . ’’ t’óó ahayoí, seven pages daatsí. ’’ A: ((WHISTLES)) B: graphs, dóó, aadoo nda ™ahdo formulas. ’’ Ndi the last oneígíí . . two pages multiple choice. ’’ Line 1 in example 2 contains the only verb, which contains a piece of morphology I will turn to in the next section: the Navajo distributive plural -da-. Navajo does not mark plurality on nouns but rather either encodes it in the verb stem or else uses this distributive plural morpheme, which lends a slightly different meaning.
Revealing language ideologies in the Native American context means disclosing the role of these beliefs and feelings in such conﬂicting and ongoing processes as hegemonic domination (and the reassertion of cultural sovereignty by tribes), colonization (and attempts at ‘‘decolonization’’ by indigenous communities), and syncretic attempts to shape practices and policies (both state government and tribal) to the evolving language ideologies of indigenous communities. Apart from considerations of theoretical scope are the very legitimate practical concerns of indigenous communities and their concerns for language maintenance and the cultural continuity it ensures.
These communities have in common with the Navajo a couple of historical facts. First, they were originally large enough to survive the ‘‘biological death’’ that wiped out many Native 42 margaret c. field American languages through rapid reduction of population (Hill 1983). Second, they have all been the victims of ‘‘imperfect transmission,’’ or an interruption in the natural process of language socialization across generations, in conjunction with the rapid acquisition of a new language by large numbers of a population within a lifetime.
Native American Language Ideologies: Beliefs, Practices, and Struggles in Indian Country by Paul V. Kroskrity, Margaret C. Field