By Amir Zjajo
With the short development of CMOS fabrication expertise, increasingly more signal-processing features are carried out within the electronic area for a lower price, decrease energy intake, greater yield, and better re-configurability. This has lately generated a superb call for for low-power, low-voltage A/D converters that may be learned in a mainstream deep-submicron CMOS know-how. even though, the discrepancies among lithography wavelengths and circuit function sizes are expanding. decrease energy provide voltages considerably decrease noise margins and elevate diversifications in method, gadget and layout parameters. for that reason, it's gradually tougher to manage the fabrication procedure accurately adequate to keep up uniformity. The inherent randomness of fabrics utilized in fabrication at nanoscopic scales implies that functionality should be more and more variable, not just from die-to-die but in addition inside of every one person die. Parametric variability could be compounded through degradation in nanoscale built-in circuits leading to instability of parameters over the years, ultimately resulting in the advance of faults. technique edition can't be solved through enhancing production tolerances; variability has to be decreased by way of new gadget expertise or controlled through layout to ensure that scaling to proceed. equally, within-die functionality edition additionally imposes new demanding situations for attempt methods.
In an try and tackle those concerns, Low-Power High-Resolution Analog-to-Digital Converters particularly specialize in: i) enhancing the ability potency for the high-speed, and coffee spurious spectral A/D conversion functionality by way of exploring the potential for low-voltage analog layout and calibration thoughts, respectively, and ii) improvement of circuit strategies and algorithms to reinforce trying out and debugging capability to discover error dynamically, to isolate and confine faults, and to get better error constantly. The feasibility of the defined tools has been demonstrated via measurements from the silicon prototypes fabricated in normal 180nm, 90nm and 65nm CMOS technology.
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As a minimum, one extra quantization level is required , but for maximum error tolerance the nominal number of comparators has to be doubled. The level of error tolerance on the coarse A/D converter section depends on how much digital error correction range the fine A/D converter section can provide. The correction range varies from Æ3 LSBs in  to a much larger value in [22, 25] with an S/H inter-stage amplifier. 18 2 Analog to Digital Conversion If over/under-range protection is used, the offset requirements for the coarse converter can be greatly relaxed; but the fine one shares similar matching concerns as the flash architecture.
Accordingly, the aspect ratio necessary for the input differential pair must be fairly large, in the hundred range. Similarly, since with scaling the gate oxide becomes thinner, the specific capacitance Cox increases as the scaling factor. However, since the gate area decreases as the square of the scaling factor, the gate-to-source and gain-to-drain parasitic capacitance lowers as the process is scaled. The coefficients for the parasitic input and output capacitance, Cgs and Cgd shown in Fig. 0 IDS [A] Fig.
Although the architecture is straightforward, parallel A/D converters usually are not the best compromise when it 16 2 Analog to Digital Conversion comes to increasing the conversion rate of medium speed converters. For the A/D converter family described in this book, it has therefore been decided in favor of two-step/multi-step converter to obtain higher speed. 4 A/D Converters Realization Comparison In this section, a number of recently published high resolution analog to digital converters are compared.
Low-Power High-Resolution Analog to Digital Converters: Design, Test and Calibration by Amir Zjajo