By Robbie Ethridge
During this sweeping local heritage, anthropologist Robbie Ethridge lines the metamorphosis of the local South from first touch in 1540 by way of Hernando De Soto to the sunrise of the eighteenth century, while indigenous humans now not lived in a in basic terms Indian global yet relatively at the fringe of an increasing eu empire and in a brand new social panorama that incorporated a wide inhabitants of Europeans and Africans. even though millions of Indians died or have been enslaved and nearly all local polities have been considerably altered in those years, the cave in of this advanced Mississippian international didn't extinguish the local peoples of the South yet quite remodeled them. utilizing a brand new interpretive framework that Ethridge calls the "Mississippian shatter area" to explicate those tumultuous instances, From Chicaza to Chickasaw examines the ecu invasion and the cave in of the precontact Mississippian international and the restructuring of discrete chiefdoms into coalescent local societies in a colonial international. inside of this higher nearby context, she heavily follows the tale of 1 group--the Chickasaws--throughout this era. With skillfully synthesized archaeological and documentary facts, Ethridge illuminates the local South in its earliest colonial context and sheds new gentle at the profound upheaval and cultural transformation skilled by way of the region's first peoples.
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Additional info for From Chicaza to Chickasaw: The European Invasion and the Transformation of the Mississippian World, 1540-1715
They were the first humans, but they had supernatural powers. First Man and First Woman figure much into Mississippian iconography, and Mississippian artists crafted statues and other sculptures in the likeness of them. 25 There were other Ancient Time deities, such as the warrior Morning Star (Red Horn) and his brothers. The well-Â�known Falcon Warrior or Birdman motifs are representations of Morning Star. Morning Star was clearly a magical warrior, as he is often depicted doing ritual dances of warfare.
Perhaps the most fundamental concept was that of the cosmos. The cosmos was believed to comprise three worlds: the Above World and the Below World, which were opposites, and the Middle World, or This Worldâ†œ—â†œæ¸€the world of humans (Figure 2). ” The Below World was not a place where sinners were banished, nor was the Above World a place of reward for goodness. Rather, they were complimentary halves of a whole, and This World stood somewhere between the two. Also, the Above World and Below World were subdivided into tiers Chicaza and the Mississippian World 19 or levels, and each level was home to specific deities and supernatural beings who could travel among cosmic levels.
Archaeologists call the smaller chiefdoms “simple chiefdoms” because they were polities in which the elite only controlled the towns connected to that chiefdom. Simple chiefdoms were clusters of about four to seven towns, with one of these usually having only a single mound and serving as the center of the chiefdom. These towns were small, with an average population of 350 to 650 people, and a simple chiefdom, as a whole, had an average population of between 2,800 to 5,400 people. ” Archaeologists are not in agreement as to the specific organizational mechanisms that held a paramount chiefdom together.
From Chicaza to Chickasaw: The European Invasion and the Transformation of the Mississippian World, 1540-1715 by Robbie Ethridge