By David L.; Robert Silverstein & Minoru Nakajima (eds.) Wood
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Additional info for Control of Insect Behavior by Natural Products
C , and Law, J. H. (1964). Prog. Rep. Tex. Agric. Exp. Sta. No. 2324, 1. Wilson, E. 0. (1965). Science 149, 1064. Zmarlicki, C , and Morse, R. A. (1964). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 57, 73. —Exocrine gland systems of the honey bee worker that are sources, or potential sources, of pheromones. s gland; (11) Nassanoff's gland. (Adap ted from Wilson, 1965). —"Retinue" behavior of worker bees attracted to the pheromones of the queen bee. 51 NORMAN E. —Single queen bees confined in individual cages are bioassayed to determine the relative attraction of worker bees to the queens.
However, reconstituted mandibular gland secretion, made by combining the various fractions, restores most, if not all, of the attractive qualities and stimulates the formation of very large drone swarms. In 36 CONTROL OF INSECT BEHAVIOR fact, the large swarms of Crones are quite impossible to count visually (must be photographed). Further support of the multiple-compound attractant hypothesis is found in the following observation (Gary, unpublished data): living virgin queens approximately 1-2 weeks old are significantly more attractive to flying drones than a wide range (10 yg to 10 mg) of synthetic queen substance displayed in similar cages.
Simpson (1963) determined that synthetic queen substance (9-oxodec-trans-2-enoic acid) does not affect swarm clustering behavior. Butler et^ al. (1964) found, under controlled environmental conditions, that 9-hydroxydecenoic acid stimulated swarms to form and maintain a stable cluster. In subsequent experiments by Butler and Simpson (1967), the complementary nature of 9-oxodec-trans-2-enoic acid and 9-hydroxydec-trans-2-enoic acid was discovered, that is, the former was strongly attractive to flying bees from a queenless swarm while the latter stimulated bees to alight and group into a "quiet" cluster.
Control of Insect Behavior by Natural Products by David L.; Robert Silverstein & Minoru Nakajima (eds.) Wood